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4 



GEN. FRANCIS NASH 



tbMiodmmmwnnm 



AN ADDRESS 

BY 

HON. A. iV4. WADDELL 

Delivered at the Unveiling of a Monument to General Nash, 

Voted by Congress, at the Guilford Battle Ground, 

July 4, 1906. 



Published by the Guilford Battle Ground Company, 
Greensboro, N. C. 



, Wt^Jl 



Gift 
I»ttbJIsher 



GEN. FRANCIS NASH 



Jlfr. Presideiif diid deiifJcjiicn of tJic (riii/ford liatflr GroiiiKl 

(\)lll IKHIIJ. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

An ancient maxim declares that Republics are ungrateful. 
We are today in the presence of a noble and enduring proof 
of its falsity. A great state? man declared that no monu- 
ment oJght to be erected to a public character until a hun- 
dred years after the period of his active services, for there 
could be no absolute assurance of their permanent value until 
the lapse of that time. 

To this supreme test the public character and services of 
which I shall speak on this occasion have been subjected, 
and they have gained additional lustre in the alembic of the 
years. Those services ended, and he who performed them 
closed his earthly career more than a century and a quarter 
ago upon one of the battlefields of the American Revolution, 
and today we are assembled to witness the final execution of 
his country's long-declared pi]rpose to perpetuate his mem- 
ory by the erection of this solid and beautiful work of art. 

Such a tribute by a great nation to an unselfish patriot, a 
brave soldier and accomplished gentleman who sacrificed his 
life for the establishment and maintenance of the liberties of 
his country, is honorable to it, and, if the dead be conscious 
of the deeds of the living, must be grateful to his spirit. 

Little did he dream when death confronted him on that 
bloody field in Pennslyvania that, in the far distant future, 
on the ground where another battle was fought in the same 
cause, and within fifty miles of his own North Carolina home 
assembled thousands would witness the unveiling of a 
nation's monument to his memory. His only hope and 
aspiration, as his letters prove, was that his country would 
be victorious and that he would soon return to his loved ones 
to pass the remainder of his days in the peaceful enjoyment 



of domestic life. The full realization of this hope was denied 
him, in common with many another hero and patriot who 
gave his life to the cause, but the larger hope prevailed, and 
his country triumphed. Great indeed and far-reaching was 
that triumph, for it revolutionized human history and estab- 
lished forever — at least among people of Anglo-Saxon origin 
— the doctrine of government by the people. There have 
been lapses in the practical enforcement of this doctrine, 
but it has always persistently asserted itself and will con- 
tinue to do so to the end of time. It is our inheritance from 
which we can never be divorced, and for the priceless pos- 
session we are indebted to the heroic men who in an appar- 
ently hopeless contest of seven years' duration finally forced 
its acceptance at the point of the bayonet and proudly pro- 
claimed it to an astonished world. 

The man with the blood of the American Revolution in his 
veins who can regard with indifference the career of any sol- 
dier of that struggle who gave his life for his country is 
unworthy of the privileges which he enjoys as an American 
citizen. If whenever that glorious era of the birth of liberty 
is celebrated, he does not feel a thrill of admiration and rev- 
erence for the men who by their valor and patient sacrifices 
made it immortal he is a degenerate. 

Some years ago an American statesman declared that the 
government of the American Colonies by George III. was 
the best government then existing on earth, and he was 
right in his judgment for there was no government on earth 
at that time which fully recognized the rights of the people 
and the British government came nearer to it than any 
other. So much the more honor to the American subjects 
of that government for their demand for the fullest rights 
and privileges of British subjects, and, when these were 
denied, to assert the right of resistance to oppression. They 
began it in North CaroHna long before the Revolution and 
even after their open resistance to the Stamp Act in 1765 for 



nearly ten years they declared again and again — George 
Washington being a leader in such declaration — that thej?" 
did not desire, or contemplate a separation from the British 
crown, but when finally driven to the wall they turned and 
deliberately declared themselves independent. The first 
Declaration of Independence was made at Charlotte on the 
20th May, 1775, and the first instruction to representatives 
in the Continental Congress to declare for independence was 
given by the Convention at Halifax on the r2th of April, 
177G. 

How these bold declarations were sustained by North 
Cai'olina people when the issue of battle was presented, is a 
story that ought to be made familiar to every school child in 
the State. The duty assigned me today can only embrace a 
fragment of it, but that fragment covers a career of which 
every North Carolinian should feel proud. 

A few miles below Parmville, in Prince Edward county, 
Virginia, and in the forks of the Appomattox and Bush 
rivers, there was in 1732 a large landed estate of more than 
5,000 acres, which had been settled by a gentleman from 
Tenby, Pembr(^keshire, South Wales, who from the time of 
his arrival in Virginia to the day of his death was prominent 
and active in affairs, both of church and State. The county 
of Prince Edward was a part of Henrico county prior to 1754, 
and therefore the earlier record of this gentleman is credited 
to the latter county. 

He was presiding Justice of the county and is said to have 
attended the sessions of the court in great state, with a 
coach and four, being received by the sheriff at the door very 
ceremoniously. He had been sheriff of Henrico county and 
after the formation of Prince Edward county was the first 
member of the house from that county. He was associated 
with the leaders of the Colony and helped to build old St. 
John's church in Richmond, where Patrick Henry after- 
wards delivered his celebrated phihipic, and in 1757 was 



6 

appointed Colonel of a regiment that was sent to protect the 
frontier against the Indians. 

This gentleman, John Nash, before coming to America 
with his brother Thomas, had married Anna Owen, daughter 
of Sir Hugh Owen of Tenby, and he named his estate in the 
forks of the Appomattox and Bush rivers, "Templeton 
Manor," after the town of Templeton, near Tenby. On this 
estate he lived in the style and with the abounding comforts 
that characterized the life of a wealthy Virginia planter of 
that period, and there brought up the four sons, and four 
daughters who were born to him, all of whom personally, or 
in their children reflected honor upon his name and their 
own. Indeed it may be safely asserted that there are few 
families in the country that produced, in proportion to their 
numbers, more distinguished men in civil and military life 
than his. The oldest of his sons, Col. Thomas Nash, married 
Mary Reed, and removed lirst to Lunenburg county and 
represented that county in the House of Burgesses and 
thence to Edenton, N. C, where he died in 1769, leaving an 
only daughter, Anna Owen Nash, who married in 1771 the 
Rev. John Cameron, of Petersburg, A-^a. Their children 
were Judge Duncan Cameron, of Raleigh, Judge John A. 
Cameron, of the U. S. District Court of Florida, Dr. Thomas 
Cameron, of Payetteville, N. C, and Wm. Cameron, of Ellers- 
ly. Orange county. 

His second son was Col. John Nash, the second, who was a 
Colonel in the Revolution in 17^1, represented Prince Edward 
county in House of Delegates in 1778, was the founder and a 
member of the Board of Trustees of Hampden Sidney Col- 
lege, inherited the estate of Templeton by devise from his 
father, and died in 1803. 

The third son of Col. John Nash, was Abner Nash, who 
after succeeding his father as representative from Prince 
Edward, moved to Newbern, N. C, and was a member of the 
Provincial Congress at Halifax in the years 1774-'5-'6, which 



body appointed him, among other committees, on one to pre- 
pare the constitution of the new state. He was an able law- 
yer, the first Speaker of the first House of Commons, and 
the second Governor of the State, 1779- '81, and a member of 
the Continental Congress, 17H2-'y6, and died in New York 
during tlie session of Congress, December 2nd, 1786. He 
was the father of the late Chief Justice Frederick Nash, of 
our Supreme Court. 

And now we come to the fourth and youngest son of Col. 
John Nash, (original owner of Templeton Manor,) General 
Francis Nash, in whose honor this memorial arch has been 
erected. 

Like his brothers Thomas and Abner, he too removed to 
North Carolina, but selected his residence in a different part 
of the State — Hillsborough — a town which even then had 
begun to be historic. He came there a young lawyer seeking 
his career, and soon made iiis mark. He had never held any 
office, but some time after settling there he w^as appointed 
Clerk of the Superior Court of Orange County, and also a 
Captain under the Crown. He commanded his company in 
the battle of Alamance in 1771, and his steady conduct 
attracted attention. He was a member of the Provincial 
Congress tliat met at Hillsborough in August 1775, and was 
elected by that body September 1, 1776, Lieut. -Col. of the 
first regiment of the Continental Line, of whicli James Moore 
was elected Colonel. 

That regiment with the mil'tia under Caswell, Lillington 
and others, won the first victory of the Revolution at Moore's 
Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776. Col. Moore liaving been 
appointed Brigadier-General immediately after that fight, 
Nash became Colonel, his commission dating from April 10, 
1776. On the first of June, Sir Henry Clinton's lleet with 
Cornwallis's forces, left the mouth of the Cape Fear for 
Charleston, and immediately the first and second regiments 
under General Moore started for that place, arriving on tli« 



11th. The British fleet opened fire on Fort Moultrie on the 
28th of June, and Cornwalhs's troops tried to land, but were 
beaten off by Col. Thompson's South Carolina Rangers and a 
battalion of two hundred picked men from Nash's Regiment 
under Lieut. Col. Clark, and these North Carolina tro<ips 
received high praise from the commanding General (Charles 
Lee) for their conduct. 

After the defeat of the British the North Carolina regi- 
ments were ccmcentrated at Wilmington, where they were 
rigidly drilled and disciplined until about the middle of 
November at which time they were ordered to the North to 
re-enforce Gen. Washington's army. They marched as far 
as Halifax on the way, but were kept there for three weeks, 
and were then counter-marched to the vicinity of Charles- 
ton again, to meet another threatened attack by the British 
who were near St. Augustine, Florida. On the 5th of Feb- 
ruary, 1777, Col. Nash was promoted to the rank of Briga- 
dier General, and assumed command of the Brigade. 

The States of Georgia and South Carolina were endan- 
gered, and because of the urgent request of those States the 
North Carolina troops were kept for their defence until 
March 15th, 1777, when they were again ordered to join 
Gen. Washington, who was retreating through New Jersey 
with great loss, and in extreme danger. They resumed 
their former route, passing through Wilmington, Halifax, 
Richmond, Alexandria and Georgetown to Philadelphia. 
Their splendid reputation had preceded them, and the result 
was that their march through Virginia, and Maryland was a 
succession of enthusiastic reception by the people. 

After a few days stop in Philadelphia, some of the regi- 
ments arrived at Washington's camp at Middlebrook, New" 
Jersey, about the last of June, 1777. The brigade was held 
at Trenton for about ten days in July, and from there Gen. 
Nash wrote one of the two or three letters of his that are 
still in existence. It was a letter to his wife dated July 25th, 



9 

and shows tliat he was thorono-hly competent, and under- 
stood the strateg'.y of the commander-in-chief, although they 
were both at that time uncertain as to the British com- 
mander's real point of attack. "When I left Philadelphia, 
which was a week or ten days ago," he says, "I expected that 
we should- have proceeded directly to headquarters. How- 
ever, I received a letter from General Washington, directing 
me to remain at this place until further orders, under a sup- 
position that the late movements of the enemy might probably 
be only a feint in order to draw our army as far to the north as 
possible, and then by a forced march endeavor to gain Phila- 
delphia, before the necessary succor could be afforded. In 
which case, we being directly in their route, should probably 
have it in our power to retard their progress, until our army 
could get up with their rear. However, from some accounts 
received this morning (to-wit, that a considerable part of 
their fleet had been discovered moving up the North river,) 
I think there cannot remain a doubt that their operations 
are intended against that quarter. General Washington, in 
consequence of this intelligence, has moved with his whole 
army within twenty miles of Fish kilns, about one hundred 
miles from hence, where he means to remain until the designs 
of the enemy are reduced to a certainty. I have been re-en- 
forced since I came here by one regiment of Virginians and 
an artillery corps with six brass field pieces, making the 
strength of my brigade, in the whole, about 2,000." 

"This morning for the tirst time, I have seen a general 
return of the state of our army, and it is with pleasure I in- 
form you that we have now on the tield, of continental troops, 
effective, upwards of 20,000, exclusive of those in Canada, 
which I. suppose amount to 4,000 or 5,000 more; add to this 
a most admirable train of artillery, and 700 Light Horse 
equal at least to those of the enemy in discipline, equipage 
and everything else, is it possible with such an army and a 



10 

Washington at their head that Americans can have anything 
to fear? No, dear Sahy, I now feel the f uhest assurance that 
can be founded in human events, that nothing less than the 
immediate interposition of Providence (which I will not sup- 
pose to be excited in favor of tyranny and oppression) can 
prevent us from the invaluable blessings of liberty, freedom 
and independence. With these assurances I rest satisfied, 
with the blessing of Heaven, of returning to you ere long 
crowned with victory, to spend in peace and domestic happi 
ness, the remainder of a life, which, without you, would not 
be worth possessing.'" 

This accession of force, so greatly needed and longed for 
by Washington, not only served to stop his retreat but stim- 
ulated him to assume the ■ aggressive against his opponent, 
Sir William How^e, who had embarked his forces by water to 
the head of Elk, in Maryland, with the intention of moving 
on Philadelphia. Washington and Howe fought at Chadd's 
Ford on the Brandywine, Sept. 11th, 1777, and Howe won 
the battle and took possession of Philadelphia. The North 
Carolina troops at Brandywine had to oppose the flanking 
movements of Lord Cornwallis, and although compelled with 
the rest of their division to retreat, they did so not only in 
good order, but with repeated attacks on the enemy, and 
they aided in bringing off the field the artillery and baggage 
of the division to which they were attached. 

In less than a month after Brandywine, namely: on the 4th 
of October, 1777, the battle of Germantown was fought, in 
which Nash led the North Carolina troops. They behaved 
splendidly and w^on great praise from Washington. They 
were in the reserve force under Major Gen. Stirling, and 
were thrown into the attack on the right. Gen. Nash was 
leading them into action down the main street of German- 
town, wiien a round shot shattered his thigh, killing his 
horse and throwing him heavily to the ground. He tried to 
conceal the extent of his hurt by covering the terrible wound 



11 

with his hands, and cheered on his men, sayiny;': "Never 
mind me. I had a devil of a tumble; rush on, my boys; rush 
on the enemy; I'll be after you presently.'" But he was mor- 
tally ^Vounded, and was carried to a private residence, where 
after lingering in greatest agony for three days, he died on 
the 7th of October, -1777. His last words were; "From the 
first dawn of the Revolution I have been ever on the side of 
liberty and my country." He was buried in the Mennonist 
graveyard at Kulpsville, with military honors, and General 
Washington issued the following order for the funeral: 

"Head Quarters, Toamensing, October 9, 1777. 

"Brigadier General Nash will be interred at 10 o'clock this 
forenoon, with miltary honors, at the place where the road 
where the troops marched on yesterday comes into the great 
road. All officers, whose circumstances will admit of it, will 
attend and pay this respect to a brave man who died in de- 
fence of his country. 

"GEORGE WASHINGTON." 

The shot that killed him also killed his aide, Major With- 
erspoon, and was a stray one fired by a retreating enemy 
who had been driven for two hours or more, and were, as 
they themselves supposed, hopelessly defeated, when an 
accident saved them, and reversed the situation. There was 
a heavy fog and no breeze to dispel it or the smoke from the 
guns which so completely enveloped the field that it was im- 
possible to see more than fifty yards. Two of the American 
columns mistook each other for the enemy, and each thought 
the other a re-inforcement with which it was unexpectedly 
confronted, and so, as Washington expressed it: "In the 
midst of the most promising appearances when everything 
gave the most flattering hopes of victory, the troops began 
suddenly to retreat, and entirely left the field in spite of 
every effort that could be made to rally them." In the same 
letter, however, he says: "In justice to Gen. Sullivan and the 

L0« t 



12 

whole right wing of the army Avhose conduct 1 had opportu- 
nity of observing as they acted immediately under my eye, 
I have the pleasure to inform you that both officers and men 
behaved with a degree of gallantry that did them the highest 
honor.'' 

More than once he referred to the death of General Nash 
as a deplorable loss to the army and to the cause for which 
he fought, and letters from the most distinguished citizens 
of the state and country, and newspaper articles on the sub- 
ject justify the belief that General Nash was very highly es- 
teemed as a soldier, and gentleman, and that both in his mil- 
itary and civil life he won the affections of his associates by 
his generous and unaffected conduct. Thos. Burke, then a 
member of congress and afterwards governor of the State, 
writing to Governor Caswell, says he was "one of the best, 
the most respected, and regretted officers in the Continental 
Army," and Governor Caswell himself said that he "left no 
equal among the officers who survived him." 

George Washington Parke Curtis, in his "Recollections of 
Washington," speaking of Gen. Nash's death and burial, uses 
the following language: "He lingered in extreme torture 
between iwo and three days and died, admired by his ene- 
mies — admired and lamented by his companions in arms. 
On Thursday the ninth of October the whole American army 
■was paraded by order of the Commander-in-Chief to perform 
the funeral obsequies of Gen. Nash, and never did the war- 
rior's last tribute peal the requiem of a braver soldier or no- 
bler patriot than that of the illustrious son of North Caro- 
lina." 

Many traditions of his physical comeliness, especially when 
mounted, have been preserved among his descendants, and 
one in particular I remember as told to me by a venerable 
man who said that one of Gen. Nash's soldiers told him that 
the General was the handsomest man on horse back that he 
ever saw. Col. Polk, who was one of his officers, was fond of 



13 

reciting his attractive qualities, and, (as another venerable gen- 
tleman told me) when describing the wound that crushed his 
leg invariably concluded his elogium by saying, "and he had 
the finest leg tliat was ever hung on a man!" But his phys- 
ical beauty seems to have been only the complement of his 
moral and intellectual_ attributes, for he was one of the most 
enlightened, liberal, generous, and magnanimous gentlemen 
that ever sacrificed his life for his country. 

And here it may not be inappropriate to record an incident 
of minor importance, but of some interest in connection with 
the events occurring on this battlefield of Guilford Court- 
house and with which the name of Gen. Nash is associated. 
The incident is one which rests on a family tradition and is 
as follows: Judge Maurice Moore, his father-in-law, had 
imported from England a thoroughbred horse named "Mon- 
trose," and a mare called "Highland Mary," and had given 
to Gen. Nash their colt, a splendid bay named "Roundhead." 
When Gen. Nash went into the army he left this favorite 
horse at his residence in Hillsborough, and during his ab- 
sence David Panning, the Tory leader, made a raid on Hills- 
borough and stole the horse. After Nash's death his body 
servant, Harry, who was with him at Germantown where he 
w^as killed, came home and at the urgent request of General 
Wm. R. Davie, who had been made Commissary General, was 
turned over to him as his servant. Harry had been dis- 
tressed at the loss of his master's favorite horse, and at the 
battle of Guilford Courthouse he had suddenly exclaimed: 
"Look yonder at that officer riding Roundhead!" The officer 
was Lord Cornwallis, and very soon after this the horse was 
killed under him. Cornwallis had two horses killed under 
him that day according to all accounts and some say three. 
The tradition to which I refer says the servant Harry not 
only recognized the horse at first but after he was shot went 
to him and identified him. The faithful servant saw his 
master killed four years before in Pennsylvania by the Brit- 



14 

ish, and now within fifty miles of his home witnessed the 
death of his favorite horse on this battle ground by the 
Americans, who were shooting at his rider, the commander 
of the British army. 

General Nash married Miss Sally Moore, daughter of 
Judge Maurice Moore, and sister of Judge Alfred Moore, 
afterwards of the Supreme Court of the United States, and 
had only two children. These were girls, the elder of whom, 
Ann, died at the age of 13, and the younger of whom, Sarah, 
married Mr. John Waddell, a rice planter on the lower Cape 
Fear river. 

Some time after his death his widow married Gen. Thomas 
Clark, who had succeeded him as Lieutenant Colonel and 
finally as Brigadier General in the Continental Line, but they 
left no children. 

One month after Gen. Nash's death the Continental Con- 
gress, on the 4th of Nov., 1777, expressed its appreciation of 
the heroic services he had rendered, and directed that a 
monument should be erected to his memory. The resolution 
of Congress was in the following words: 

"Resolved, That His Excellency, Gov. Caswell, of North 
Carolina, be requested to erect a monument of the value of 
^^^)00.00 at the expense of the United States in honor of the 
memory of Brigadier General Francis Nash, who fell in the 
Battle of German town (m the 4th day of Oct., 1777, bravely 
contending lor the independence of his country." 

That resolution remained unexecuted because the State of 
North Carolina was then, and for some years afterwards, en- 
gaged in a life-and-death struggle for self-preservation, and 
had no time to expend in the erection of monuments to her 
heroes. No monuments were erected, so far as I know, 
either by the general government or any State until long 
after the Revolution was ended, and therefore no blame could 
be justly attached to our State for not complying with the 
resolution at that time. 



Id 

But the patriotic spirit of a stranger to onr State and peo- 
ple, John F. Watson, Esq., of Philadeljjhia, prompted him 
seventy years ago to induce the citizens of Germ an town and 
Norristown to erect a monument over tiie grave of Gen. Nash, 
which was done, and for this deed his name should be grate- 
fully remembered by every true North Carolinian. 

There have been persistent efforts for fifty years to have 
this resolution of Congress carried into execution l)y Con- 
gress, but from ditferent sources o])position has with equal 
persistency interposed until these efforts ceased, from sheer 
desperation, to be made. But the patriotic Society of the 
Cincinnati, when re-organized in North Carolina, took charge 
of the matter, and from their meeting in 189(3 annually 
pressed it upon congress through the senators and repre- 
sentatives from our State until 1903, when the bill was passed 
making the appropriation asked for. It would be an act of 
injustice, however, while accrediting the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati and the North Carolina senators and representatives 
fully with their action, not to record the fact that by his un- 
remitting lal:)ors and fortunate acquaintance with leading 
senators and representatives from all parts of the country, 
the chairman of the committee of the Cincinnati, Col. Benne- 
han Cameron, is entitled to a larger share of credit for this 
legislation than any other individual, and it gives me great 
l^leasure to make public acknowledgement of the fact. After 
a careful examination of the whole history of these efforts 
and their final success this award of merit to Col. Camercm 
as the chief instrument in accomplishing the result cannot 
be justly withheld. And in this connection I wish to say 
that the design for this noble ai'ch and its construction is at- 
tributable to the skill and taste of another Nortli Carolinian, 
Capt. R. P. Johnston, of the Engineer Corps of the United 
States Army, who gave much time and care to the work and 
has just reason to be proud of its final accomplishment. 

Of course it goes without saying that in all these efforts to 



16 

secure this monument the devoted and patriotic President of 
the Guilford Battle Ground Company, Major Morehead, has 
been an indefatigable and active ally of the Cincinnati* and of 
the senators and representatives of our State and that his 
services in that behalf merit and should receive the fullest 
recognition. It was only in keeping, however, with his whole 
record as President of the Company to which he has unselfish 
ly devoted so large a part of his time for some years past. 

And a nobler work these gentlemen never did, for from 
his first appointment as Lieutenant Colonel to the time of his 
death, General Nash enjoyed the confidence of all his supe- 
rior officers and the affection of the soldiers under his com- 
mand to a remarkable degree. His career was a brief, but 
brilliant one, and ended on the field of glory, when he was 
only thirty-five years old. It is unquestionably true, and 
therefore just, to say that there was no officer of the Ameri- 
can Revolution who acquired in the same period a more solid 
reputation for soldierly qualities, or who died more univer- 
sally regretted than he, and that therefore his country for 
which he willingly gave his life has never erected a monu- 
ment to a Revolutionary hero and patriot that was more 
richly deserved than this which has been unveiled today. 



*NOTE. 



We concede the right of private opinion of course, and we 
appreciate the speaker's very complimentary words grace- 
fully spoken of us. But since after its usual custom these 
unveiling ceremonies were held upon its grounds by the 
Guilford Battle Ground Company, and since this pamphlet 
is edited and published by the Company, silence here would 
be construed into acquiescense in the opinion here expressed 
from which the Company emphatically dissents. The Con- 



17 

tinental Congress voted appropriations for monuments to 
General Francis Nash and William Lee Davidson which were 
never erected. In 1841-2 the late Governor W. A. Graham, 
then Senator in Congress from North CaroHna, and in 1888 
Senator Vance, we are told, and in 1896 the North Carohna 
Society of the Cincinnati, endeavored to revive these appro- 
priations but failed in their efforts, and the inference is that 
a pursuance of the same method and advancement of the 
same arguments would have continued to fail. But in 1902 
the Guilford Battle Ground Company furnished the Hon. W. 
W. Kitchin arguments and considerations which enabled him 
— to whom beyond all others merit is due for work done in 
Washington — to secure the appropriation by a tw^o-thirds 
majority in the house, where a majority could never be se- 
cured, though attempted for 60 years. This was effected, 
too, over the objection of Speaker Cannon and his active op- 
position. Mr. Kitchin told the House that the Battle Ground 
Company (or Association as it ought to be called) of North 
Carolinians had purchased, redeemed, beautified and adorn- 
ed the famous Revolutionary Battlefield of Guilford Court 
House; that in its poverty it was continuing its struggle of 
15 years for its continued adornment and that Congress 
should therefore, among other reas(ms, vote the appropri- 
ation and place the monuments at Guilford. Mr. Kitchin 
was then addressing many members of Congress who knew 
that thus to aid the Battle Ground Company was not only to 
honor North Carolina's Noble Dead, but that it was also to 
make of this Battlefield for all time, a monument to troops 
from their own respective States who fought here under 
Greene in 1781. This two-thirds majority illustrated the 
difference in effect upon Congress between the mere intro- 
duction of bills and resolutions and the reclamation, after 
vast toil and expenditure, of this Famous Battlefield. 

The Resolution, as adopted, placed the disbursement of 
the funds, erection of the monuments etc., in the hands of 



18 

the Secretary of War, who should however, act jointly with 
the Governor of North Carolina "in the selection of a location 
for the said monuments." The authority was soon placed 
by the Secretary of War in the hands of Hon. C. B. Aycock, 
the then Governor, exclusively and very soon a bitter con- 
test arose before the Governor between the Society of the 
Cincinnati and the Battle Ground Company — the Cincinnati 
desiring to locate the monument elsewhere than on the Guil- 
ft)rd Battle Ground. Full evidence as to who secured the 
appropriation and whose wishes w^ere therefore entitled to 
prevail in their location, was laid before the Governor, the 
leg-ally constituted and tlnal authority in the matter, and after 
l)atient, painful, conscientious consideration, the Governor 
put them at Guilford, where they now stand. 

The supposed inlluence of Colonel Cameron, Chairman of 
the Committee of the Cincinnati, is here ascribed to his ac- 
quaintanceship with different members of Congress and in 
this connection we have heard the name of Senator Wetmore, 
of Rhode Island, mentioned specifically. We now re-pub- 
lish and aijpend two letters which show that the Company 
liad its representative in Washington; that he labored among 
inlluential members, and that his labors were effectual. 

United States Senate. 

Washington, D. C, Feb. 24, (1903.) 
Dear Sir: 

Since receiving your letter of February 16, 1 have conferred 

with Senators Pritchard and Simmons, as well as Mr. W. W. 

Kitchin, and find that all are in favor of erecting the statues 

of Generals Nash and Davidson on the Guilford Battle 

Ground. I have today addressed a letter to the Secretary 

of War, a copy of which is herewith transmitted, enclosing 

your letter to me on this subject. 

Very truly yours, 

George Peabody Wetmore. 

Colonel Joseph M. Morehead, Greensboro, N. C. 



10 

United States Senate. 

Washington, D. C, Feb. 24, (1003.) 
Dear Mr. Secretary: 

I desire to call your attention to the enclosed letter dated 
February sixteenth, addressed to me by Colonel Joseph M. 
Morchead, pi-esident of the Guilford Battle Ground Com- 
pany, who during- the consideration of the bill for the statues 
of Generals Nash and Davidson both in the House and Sen- 
ate, manifested the greatest interest in it. You will notice 
that he is very much exercised lest another site be chosen 
than the Guilford Battle Ground. I have conferred with 
Senators Pritchard and Simmons, of North Carolina, as w^ell 
as with Mr. W- W. Kitchin, member of the House from that 
State, who all agree that the statues should be erected on 
the Guilford Battle Ground. I might also add that the Guil- 
ford Battle Ground was the only place mentioned when the 
bill was under consideration in the House. Believe me. 

Very sincerely ;^ours, 

George Pea body Wet more. 
Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of War. 

Joseph M. Morehead, 

President (luilfoi'd Battle Ground ('uiujxniy. 



AUG 24 1906 






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